Modified Noah LSM v3.4.1 associated with a manuscript submitted to Earth’s Future(2022EF002652: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau permafrost at risk in the late 21st century).

A short note

Key improvements in this modified Noah LSM codes include a modified thermal roughness scheme for sparse vegetation typical of the QTP, improved parameterization of thermal and hydraulic conductivities to account for coarse-grained QTP soils and ground-ice, and an expansion of the simulation depth to below 15 m that allows for vertical soil heterogeneity.

For more technical details, please refer to:

This release is the version used for the simulation in the work submitted to Earth’s Future. We are continuourly working to improve the LSM more suitable for permafrost simulation on the QTP. We decided to disclose these codes in the hope of encouraging sharing by the permafrost science community.

It is based on the Unified Noah LSM 3.4.1, which was originally developed by scientists from Research Applications Laboratory, NCAR. More information as well as the source codes of Noah LSM 3.4.1 can be found at its official site.

If you have made modifications based on this version or published a paper using this version, please share your good news with us ( Unfortunately, since our time is limited, we cannot provide any technical assistance. Please check our group site for further improvements to this version.

Permalab team
May 7, 2022


In this folder, three subfolders:“Modified Noah LSM v3.4.1 code”,“Model_forcing”,and “Model_output” are included, alongside with this “” file.

The codes of the modified Noah LSM v3.4.1 can be found in folder Modified Noah LSM v3.4.1 code

Source code: all *.F files, and the main driver code is simple_driver.F.

Parameters files:

  • General parameters — GENPARM.TBL
  • Soil Parameters — SOILPARM.TBL
  • Vegetation Parameters — VEGPARM.TBL
  • Urban Parameters — URBPARM.TBL

Txt file forcing_example.txt in Model_forcing is an example input for drivering the LSM.

Txt file forcing_example.txt in Model_output directory is the corresponding output of the modified Noah LSM.

Notes on compiling the source codes

Set up compilation environment

Noah LSM runs in a Linux environment.

If you are using Windows 10, you can either enable Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) or install a virtual machine using Oracle VirtualBox.

Compile the modified Noah LSM source codes

Edit user_build_options to choose compiler, compiler options, libraries, etc.

Adjust compiler options and library paths as necessary from the default settings provided in user_build_options.

Invoke “make” to compile.

Once the model successfully compiled, the excecutable file driver.exe is generated in the Modified Noah LSM v3.4.1 code directory.

Run the model

Copy driver.exe and four *.TBL parameters files from the Modified Noah LSM v3.4.1 code directory to the Model_forcing directory.

Run: “driver.exe forcing_example.txt”

Once the model is successfully run, a txt file forcing_example.txt is produced and saved in the Model_output directory.

Codes Availability: Onedrive, OSF repository, (zip, ~6.7MiB)